Cytology - Chapter 1 - ( Biology ) - Important for WBCS, SSC, Rail and other exams


Chapter 1 : Cytology
Biology is the study of living organisms. All living organisms are made of cells, the structural and functional unit of life. In 1665 Robert hooke(Father of Cytology – study of form, structure and composition of cell) discoverd the cell from cork section, though its non living. Its Anton Von Leeuwenhok who first discoved living cell in 1674. Cell exists in many shapes and sizes. Check below table.
Cell Size Chart

Mycoplasma Gallisepticum, Mycoplasma Ladlawi
Smallest Cell
Smallest Human Cell
Egg of Ostrich (170mm X 130mm)
Largest Animal Cell
Largest Unicellular Plant Cell
Fibre of Ramie
Longest Multicellular Plant cell
Nerve Cell
Longest Human Cell

·         Cells are extremely small, it can not be seen in naked eye(except egg of ostrich, some reptiles). We need help of microscopes to see cells properly. There is basically three types of Microscopes, these are –
Types of Microscopes
Discovered by
Electron Microscope
Knoll and Ruska
Simple Microscope
Anton Von Leuwenhok
Compound Microscope
Francis and Zacharias Jansen

·         The cell theory was proposed by Schleiden (A German Botanist) and Schawann (A German Zoologist) in 1838-39. The name cells was given by Rober Hooke.
·         Cells are basicaly of two types. These are – i) Eukaryotic and ii)prokaryotic.

Parts of The Cell
Important Note
Cell Wall
Inert and dead in nature. Main Component is Cellulose, for fungi : Chitin.
Give Shape,hardness & Rigidity. Storage of excretory products.
Discoverer : Robert Hooke.
Presents only in Plants.
Plasma Membrane
Made up of Lipid and Protein.
Controls entrance & exist of water molecules, ions & others substance between cells.

Named by : Plowe
Colloidal & Jelly like.
Promotes metabolic functions and connection between cells.
Present between Cell membrane and nuclear membrane.
It is dense, carries genetic materials. Four Part :
i) Nuclear membrane.
ii) Nucleoplasm.
iii) Nuclear Raticulam.
iv) Nucleolus.
Controls all cell activity, cell division, Ribosome(rRNA) synthesis by nucleolus.
Discovered by : Robert Brown. Brain Of Cell.
Sherical to rod shaped. Surrounded by 2 lipoprotein membrane, inner foled to form Cristae.
Main function : ATP Synthesis.
Discovered by : Altman. Mitochondria is called : Power house of Cell.
Surrounded by 2 lipoprotein membrane. These are three types :
i) Chloroplast – Green
ii)Chromoplast – other than Green
iii)Leukoplast - Colourless
i)Chloroplast : helps in Photosynthesis
ii) Chromoplast : Colour of Flower, fruits
iii) Leukoplast : Storage of Food.
Found only in plants.
Chloroplast is called Sugar Factory of Cell. It contains Grana and stroma.
Golgi Body
It consist of Sacs, vasicles and vacuoles.
It secrets hormones and Enzymes.
Discovered by : Camilo Golgi.
In plant, it is called – Dictyosome.
It is also called “Traffic police of Cell
Sac like structure.
Controls metabolism of H2O.
It is called “safety Valve of Cell
Sap like structure
It stores water, sugar, waste .
Outer of vacuole is called Tonoplast. It is also called “Stores house of cell”.
Contains hydrolytic , digestive enzymes. Sac like structure
Helps in digestion
Also called “Suicidal Bag
Composed of protein and rRNA. 80S in nature.
Protein Synthesis
Protein Factory of Cell
Made of centrioles and centrospheres.
formation of spindle fibre.

For Quiz on  - Chapter 1 : Cytology – Click Here

For Chapter 2 : Tissues and Cell Division & Cycle – Click Here

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