Indus Valley Civilization - Chapter 2 - Important for WBCS, WBPSC, SSC, IBPS and More. (History)


Chapter 2 : Indus Valley Civilisation
The Four earliest civilisations of the world are Mespotamia ( Tigris and Euphratis ), China ( Hwang ho ), Indus Valley civilsation ( Indus & Ravi – main ) and Egypt ( Nile ). The Indus Valley Civilisation belongs to River base, Town base, urban, chalcolithic and Proto-historic. By carbon-14 dating, the most accepted period of IVC is “2500 B.C.E – 1700 B.C.E” . This Period can be divided into following sub-parts -
*Early Phase – 2900-2500 B.C.E
*Middle Phase – ( Mature ) – 2500- 2000 B.C.E
*Later Phase – 2000 – 1700 B.C.E
**The Town Planning of this civilisation was not uniform, common features was grid system. Under Ground drainage system were found. The Towns were divided into two parts. Citadel / upper parts and lower parts.
**Agriculture was the backbone of this civilisation. Soil was fertile. They usd Wooden plugh share and stickls for harvesting. Main crops are – wheat, barley, mustard, ragi, bajra, peas, jowar, sesamum and many other. Rice husks were found at Lothal and Rangpur and ploughed field at Kalibangan.
** The used stone tools and were well acquinted with bronze ( made by mixing copper with tin ).
**They play Dice game and gambling was favourite time pass.
They use cotton fabric in summer and woollen in winter.
**Pots were decorated with animals, plant , human figures and geometrical patterns.
**They used red (plain ) and red –black (painted) pottery.
**Boat making was known to them. They used jewellery of gold, silver stones.Fire baked clay was used to make toys, animals, etc.
** trade was based on barter system. Bullock carts and boats were used for transportation.
>>Religious believe: 1. Goddess of Earth – A terracotta figure where a plant is shown growing out of the embryo of a woman.
2. Proto-Shiva : Pashupati Mahadeva represented in seals as sitting in a yogic posture on a throne and having three faces and two horns. He is surrounded by an elephant, a rhino, a buffalo, a tiger and two deers appear at his feet.
IVC people believed in Ghost and Evil spirits and used amules for protection.
** Fire Altars are found at Lothal and Kalibangan.
>> Before common era I.V.C also known as Harappan civilisation, because – i) Harappa was the first discovered site. ii) from Harappa large number of archeological evidances have been found.

>> We are now going to discuss the Indus cities :

1. Harappa ( Province : Pakistan Punjab )
- Harappa was situated on the banks of River Ravi. This site was first discovered by D.R. Sahni in the year 1921. “6 Granaries” were found in the citadel at Harappa.  The houses of the city, was made up of burnt bricks ( high quality ) and lamposts were seen at the regular intervals thus indicates the existence of street lighting.
2. Mohenjodaro (Province : Sind ) : Mohenjodaro was situated on the banks of River Indus. This site was first discovered by RD Banerjee in the year 1922. The Great Bath was found at Mohenjodaro. It was used for religious bathing. The steps at either sides lead to the surface. There were changing rooms alongside.  The Bronze image of nude women dancer (identified as devdasi) and stone image of a beared man both obtained from mohenjodaro.
3. Lothal ( Province : Gujrat ) : Lothal was situated on the banks of River Bhogava. This site was first discovered by SR Rao in the year 1957.  Lothal was famouse for factory for stone tools and metalic finished goods.
4. Kalibangan ( Province : Rajasthan Kutchh ) : Kalibangan was situated on the banks of River Ghaggar. This site was first discovered by BB Lal in the year 1961. Camel bones are reported at Kalibangan. Fire altars, ploughed field are also found at here.
5. Chanhudaro ( Province : Sind ) :  Chanhudaro was situated on the banks of River indus. This site was first discovered by MG majumdar in the year 1931.  
6. Sutkagandor ( Province : Balochistan ) :  Sutkagandor was situated on the banks of River dasht. This site was first discovered by Aurel Stein in the year 1931.  
7. Ropar ( Province : Indian Punjab ) : Ropar was situated on the banks of River Sutlej. This site was first discovered by YD sharma in the year 1953.  
8. Banawali ( Province : Haryana ) :  Banwalil was situated on the banks of River Ghaggar. This site was first discovered by R S Bisht in the year 1973.  
9. Rangpur ( Province : Gujarat ) :  Rangpur was situated on the banks of River Bhadur. This site was first discovered by M S vats in the year 1931.  
10. Alamgirpur ( Province : Uttar Pradesh ) :  Alamgirpur was situated on the banks of River Hindon. This site was first discovered by YD Sharma in the year 1974.  

***Some Important Short One Line Information :
1. in 1826, Charles Massam first visited to the place of indus region.
2. Alexander cunningham 2nd time visited at this place. He established Archaeological Survey of india (A.S.I)- ( WBCS Question ).
3. Sir John Marshall became the Director of “A.S.I”.
4. Mohenjodaro = “Mound of Dead
5. Chnahudaro = “Mound of Dead
6. Harappa = “ City of Granaries
7. J.Fleet discovered Harappan Seal. ( type – Mostly Square )
8. The Most Earliest Port : Lothal ( Gujrat ), it was River port.
9. Largest and latest discovered site = Dholavira ( gujrat )
10. Maximum Number of sites have been found from Gujrat.
11. Most earliest Naval Dockyard have been found from Lothal.
12. From Harappa we found “ Pashupati Seal”.
13. Mohenjodaro was the most populated City.
14. Fire Altars have been found from Kalibangan.
15. Script of this civilisation was pictographic in Nature. Fish Symbol is most represented. It was written from right to left in the first line and left to right in the second and so on. This style of writing is called “ Boustrophedon”.
16. Harappan Society pre-dominantly “ Matriarchal
17. House Burial are reported from gufral in Kashmir.
18. Main Items of export of Indus People were – cotton goods, Pottery, Teracottas etc.
19. Harappan pottery are in Red and Black.
20. 1st urbanisation was to take place during the time of Harappan Civilisation.

***Decline of the Civilisation:
There are many different theories by historian for decline of this civilisation. Some of the important theories/views by historians are as follows -
1. Inundation : MR Sahani.
2. External Aggression : Piggot, Gordon, Wheeler.
3. Flood : Marshall, Sr Rao
4. Climate Change : RL Stein, AN ghosh
5. Epidemic : KVR Kennedy
6. Change in course of river : GF Holes
For Quiz on Chapter 2 : Indus Valley Civilisation : Click Here
For Chapter 3 – Aryan / Vedic Age : Click here (Link Will be active soon)

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